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Working principle of plasma torch

Date: 01/02/2021

What is a plasma torch?

In order to correctly explain the working principle of a plasma torch, we must first answer the basic question "What is plasma? In the simplest terms, plasma is the fourth state of matter. We usually think that matter has three states: solid and liquid. And gas. Matter changes from one state to another by introducing energy (such as heat). For example, when a certain amount of heat is applied, water will change from solid (ice) to liquid. If the heat increases, it will again Change from liquid to gas (vapor). Now, if the heat increases again, the gas that makes up the vapor will become ionized and conduct electricity, becoming plasma. The plasma cutter will use this conductive gas to transfer energy from the power source to any conductive material , So as to achieve a cleaner and faster cutting process than oxyfuel.

Working principle of plasma torch

When a gas (such as oxygen, nitrogen, argon or even workshop air) is forced through a small nozzle hole in the torch, a plasma arc begins to form. Then, an arc generated by an external power source is introduced into the high-pressure gas flow, thereby generating a phenomenon commonly referred to as "plasma flow". The plasma jet immediately reached temperatures as high as 40,000°F, quickly piercing the workpiece and blowing away the molten material.

The function of plasma torc is to provide correct alignment and cooling for consumables. The main consumable parts required to generate a plasma arc are electrodes, swirl rings and nozzles. Additional shielding covers can be used to further improve the cutting quality, and all components are fixed together by internal and external fixing covers.

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